3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is the process of arriving at a dependable solution to problems
through planned and systematic collection, analyzing and interpretation of
data (Osuala, 1993).
Green and Full (1975) defines research methodology as the specification of
procedures for collecting and analyzing the data necessary to solve the
problem at hand such that the differences between the cost of obtaining
various levels of accuracy and the expected value of the information
associated with each level of accuracy is optimized.
Thus, in this chapter the method and techniques of data collection and
analysis for this study are discussed in details, research design, population
of study, sample and sampling technique, sources of data collection,
research instrument, validity of the instrument, reliability of the instrument,
procedure for administration of research instrument, as well as the
limitation of the research methodology. This will be important in order to
service quality and customer satisfaction in SMEs in Benin City.
3.1 Research Design
The research design adopted in this research work is the survey research
design which involves the usage of self-designed questionnaire in the
collection of data. Under the survey research design, primary data of this
study will be collected from selected SMEs in Benin City in order to
determine service quality and customer satisfaction in SMEs in Benin City.
The design was chosen because it enables the researcher to collect data
without manipulation of any variables of interest in the study. The design
also provides opportunity for equal chance of participation in the study for
3.2 Population of Study
The population of study is the census of all items or a subject that possess
the characteristics or that have the knowledge of the phenomenon that is
being studied (Asiaka, 1991). It also means the aggregate people from
which the sample is to be drawn.
Population is sometimes referred to as the universe. The population of this
research study will be Seventy-five (75) staff of selected SMEs in Benin city
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
The researcher made use of stratified sampling technique because all the
members have the same probability of occurrence. The researcher
narrowed down the samples to the owners of SMEs in order to access
service quality and customer satisfaction in SMEs in Benin city.
In this study, the researcher used the [TARO YAMANE FORMULA] to
determine the sample size.
Yamane (1967:886) provides a simplified formula to calculate sample sizes.
95% confidence level
P = .5
n= 75/1+75(0.05) 2
3.4 Method of Data Collection
Basically, the source of data collection used in this study is primary and
secondary. The primary source involves the use of questionnaire. The
secondary source is by means of research into journals, published work in
the library as well as newspaper articles.
The researcher adopted questionnaire in collecting relevant information for
the study. The questions asked in the questionnaire were accompanied by
multiple choice answers from which the respondents were asked to pick
The main reason for using this method of collecting data is to enable the
researcher believe that this method will provide the necessary information
as well as the ease with which the method will facilitate data collection.
This will ensure balance and comprehensive information reliable enough for
conclusion to be drawn.
3.5.Validity And Reliability Of Research Instruments
Validity here refers to the degree of measurement to which an adopted
research instrument or method represents in a reasonable and logical
manner the reality of the study (Prince Udoyen: 2019).
Nworgu (1991) contended that after the items in a questionnaire have
been written, it is mandatory to subject the questionnaire to validation
He maintained that in this way the items can be reviewed in terms of their
clarity, the appropriateness of the language and expressions, the suitability
of each item with references to the research question. It is expected to
answer the adequacy of the quantity of items in the questionnaire.
In respect of this he says; after the items have been written, the next
crucial step is to subject the questionnaire to a validation process. This is
an extremely important exercise that cannot be skipped in the
development of an instrument.
The questionnaires were being validated by the investigator’s project
supervisor and some of his colleagues. Each of them was given a copy of
questionnaire for critical review and were finally ratified and approved by
the investigator’s project supervisor.
Although, the responses of the respondents may be bias, the questionnaire
would still be able to capture the needed information based on the
respondents’ opinion. To allow for the elements of bias that may be
contained in the responses, 1% level of significance would be allowed in
the data testing. This will take care of error, bias etc. that may be in the
Reliability is referred to as the degree to which the instrument consistently
measures what it intends to measure (Ojo, 2003). His responds to this
research study indicated that the questionnaire was well structured to
achieve the purpose of the research thereby meeting the test of reliability.
The reliability of the research instrument would be tested through test-re-
test reliability. In this method the same measuring instruments is used to
take separate measurement on the same research population or sample at
different times. The higher the correlation between the two measurements,
the higher the reliability of the measuring instruments.
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
The data analysis method will deal with how the necessary data collected,
through primary source will be properly processed and presented for
meaningful analysis. The method that will be adopted to analyze data
collected will be less of manual and more of computer aided method. The
computer aided package known as statistical package for social sciences
(SPSS) will be employed to analyze data in the form of frequency tables in
knowing assessing service quality and customer satisfaction in SMEs in
Chi-Square: this statistical test is used to determine whether there is any
significant difference between the observed and expected theoretical
frequency obtained from a distribution. It is also used to test the
dependence of two attributes such as marketing strategy and
It is represented by:
Where O= observed frequency
E= expected frequency
I = the number of items where 1= 1,2,3,
The hypothesis will be tested using the chi-square (X 2 )