This study investigated the perceived causes of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis. Youth restiveness is a situation of the inability of youths to be still or quiet and difficult to control, especially when they are unsatisfied. The design adopted for the study is the descriptive survey design. One thousand Six hundred and ninety (1690) residents of Sokoto metropolis formed the population of the study. While the sample size comprised 338 respondents calculated using the Yaro Yamane formula. The researchers developed a self-structured questionnaire with 21 items and used it for the study. Three research questions and two hypotheses were formulated for this study. The major issues shown on the results include slow or casual approach of government, corruption, unemployment, poverty and bad governance which are causal issues of the cankerworms. Furthermore, from the results, there were evidence that youth restiveness may culminate in economic stagnation, fear and suspicions, political instability, terrorism, and so on. Remediations to the canker worms include creation of employment for the youths, provision of counselling services in schools and communities, poverty eradication by government and so on. The following recommendations were made as fallouts from the study which included peace education at all levels of education, job creation for all youths and the provision of counselling services in the universities, secondary schools and the communities.






1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Purposes of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Null Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Operational definition of terms


2.1       Conceptual Framework

2.2       Theoretical Framework

2.3       Empirical review

2.4       Appraisal of literature reviewed


3.1       Research design

3.2       Population of the study

3.3       Sample and sampling technique

3.4       Instrument for Data Collection

3.5       Validity of the instrument

3.6       Reliability of the instrument

3.7       Method of data collection.

3.8       Method of data analysis


4.1       Sociodemographic representation

4.2       Analysis of research questions

4.3       Test of Null Hypotheses

4.4       Discussion


5.1       Summary

5.2       Implications of the study

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the study

5.6       Suggestion for further studies








1.1       Background of the study

Restiveness among youths globally and those in Nigeria has become a behaviour pattern which has degenerated into a topical global issue. Youth restiveness portrays man’s negative side of social development. This negative development is rather unfortunate and has become one of the many security challenges facing man in the contemporary society. In many occasions, lives and properties worth millions of naira have been lost or vandalized and some razed down by restive youths. As observed by Chukwuemeka and Agbara (2010), human society and in fact the entire universe is simply and squarely a complex entity. In view of this, individuals and groups have their complexities, needs, aspirations, hopes, goals, opinions, views and values which could be social, economic, religious, psychological or political. Consequently, there is bound to be restiveness among different groups of people especially youths who are at their prime age.

Youths are filled with energy and when this energy is positively channeled or guarded, they are highly productive, and hence they are likely to contribute to the overall development of the society. On the other hand, when the energy is negatively channeled, restiveness and its resultant effects are likely to be felt. Chika and Onyene (2010) observed that to be restive is to be unable to stay still, or unwilling to be controlled especially because one is bored or not satisfied with certain decisions, changed or existing laws considered to be unfavourable. Youth restiveness involves the combination of actions, conducts and behaviour which constitutes unwholesome, socially unacceptable behaviour exhibited by youths in the society.

On June 23rd 2012, Saturday Vanguard reported that a family of six including a six-month old child and a 70-year-old grandmother were brutally murdered by gunmen in Sokoto State. Again Iwok (2011) narrated that sixteen explosions were carried out by the same terrorist group. There are also incidence of kidnapping and the victims are usually close relations of well-placed members of the society such as commissioners, ministers and former governors. Undoubtedly, the aim is to demand huge ransom from victims’ relations thereby making life unbearable for them. Still on acts of violence, activities of cultists in institutions of learning are no longer nocturnal but carried out in broad daylight and many members have lost their lives during inter-cult shoot outs. The problem of secret cults has actually constituted a serious challenge to university authorities as well as other stakeholders in the education sector. The notoriety of individuals perpetrating the injurious activities with fatal consequences on innocent citizen has become worrisome in this society.

As great security risks to this country, social restiveness, causes killings, destruction of public properties, confusion, rioting, hostage taking, arson, extortion of money from innocent citizens, robbery, looting, et-cetera. Those found perpetuating these acts include the unemployed, security personnel, students, dropouts and university undergrauduates/graduates from tertiary institutions. Findings have shown, severally, that these hoodlums are hired by tribalised leaders, politicians or religious extremists to perpetuate these bloody acts for peanut.

Enueme and Onyeme (2010) opined that Nigerian youths have for some years developed into what could be regarded as social loafing, non-conformity behaviour, illusions of self and group vulnerability. Restiveness means refusal to be controlled, especially the adolescents in our society. Such actions are geared up with the insatiability of our youths by government or people in authorities (Oyadeyi, 2012). Enueme and Onyeme (2010) have equally observed in their study that very many youths all over the world, especially Nigeria have became non-conforming to regulations and rules from higher authorities, possibly became of societal sophistications, corruptions, youthful exuberances, identity formation, home/school context inducement, et-cetera. When youths take to unwholesome behavious generally in a community, it is tagged restiveness. Such behaviours in most cases lead to breakdown of law and order, disruption of activities of production, ethnic hostilities, and destruction of public and government properties. In other words, youth restiveness is a sustained protest to enforce desired outcome from constituted authority characterized by violence and disruption of lawful activities (Elegbeleye, 2005).

Oyadeyi (2012) opined that other major causes of restiveness include religious intolerance, buying of votes/election rigging, tribalism and corruption in high places. Again, lack of social welfarism, corruption, misinformation, lack of humanitarian activities and poverty precipitate the trio youthful dangers in our society. These various groups mentioned above are highly obnoxious mostly with or without agenda and or agitations. Infact, because of their facelessness, societal evil men, ethnic groups and or politicians hire them for their selfish aims and agenda to unleash mayhem in society in form of terrorism, militancy, kidnapping, killing during elections, robbery, maiming and ritual killings. Therefore, to curb and or ameliorate the excesses of youth restiveness in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world, this research work is tailored in such a way that the youths’ perceptions on the causes, effects and remedies of these evils are known. Therefore, this study examines the perceived causes of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto Metropolis.


1.2       Statement of the problem

Youth all over the world are an important segment of the society in which they live. Youths who are determined to succeed, disciplined, focused, and law-abiding can create a bright future for a nation. On the other hand, lawless, indulgent, and violent youths are a great threat to national peace and security. Unfortunately, recent media reports and personal observations indicates cases of armed conflicts, killings, cult clashes, ritual killings, wanton destruction of lives and properties kidnappings, lootings, pipeline destructions among others in most Nigerian States. The issue of insecurity in the country is uppermost concern to the Nigerian government and religious leaders. Several times, we have seen cases of Federal and State legislators being killed in cold blood in the country. Churches have been bombed in the Northern parts of the country. Mosques have also suffered similar fate in states like Sokoto, Borno and Kano and therefore making it impossible for one to categorise restiveness as religious. One wonders who the perpetrators of these evil acts are.

Security reports show that most of those involved in these acts are security personnel. The two suicide bombers that attacked the residences of Emirs in Borno and Yobe States were reported to be between 12 and 18 years respectively. The problem that is facing the nation is how youth restiveness can be curbed in Nigeria. It is against this background that this paper seeks to determine the causes, effects and ways of curbing youth restiveness by security personnel in Nigeria.


1.3       Purposes of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to carry out an investigation on the perceived causes of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto Metropolis. The followings are the specific purposes of this study:

  • To find out the causes of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis.
  • To find out the perceived effects of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis.
  • To find out the techniques for curbing or ameliorating youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis.


1.4       Research Questions

  • What are the causes of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis?
  • What are the perceived effects of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis?
  • How can Youth Restiveness be curbed or ameliorated in Sokoto metropolis?


1.5       Null Hypotheses

  • There is no significant difference in the perceived causes of youth restiveness on the basis of gender in Sokoto metropolis.
  • There is no significant difference in the perceived causes of youth restiveness on the basis of religion in Sokoto metropolis.


1.6       Significance of the study

This study examines causes and strategies for curbing youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto metropolis as a case study. Findings from this study will be beneficial to the Youths, Government and all concerned Nigerians to know and understand the functions of government to its citizens in the area of maintenance of law and order and the protection of life and property against external and even internal attacks. It will enlighten the government to understand the demands and importance of the youths in the country and thereby enabling them to engage the youths through a scheme called Youth Empowerment Programme. This will make them to more engage and have something doing and make better use of their lives as they say ‘an idle hand is the devil’s workshop.’

It will also serve as a foundation upon which further research can be made. It will therefore contribute to body of knowledge in the area of national security.


1.7       Scope of the Study

This study investigates perceived causes of youth restiveness by security personnel in Sokoto Metropolis. For the purpose of reliability and validity, therefore the respondents to be covered will be residents of Sokoto metropolis.


1.8       Operational definition of terms

The following terms were used in the course of this study:

Government: This refers to an institution vested with the supreme power to make and enforce law within a state.

National security: is a concept that a government, along with its parliaments, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of “national” crises through a variety of power projections, such as political power, diplomacy, economic power, military might, and so on.

Security personnel: A security personnel is a person employed by a government or private party to protect the employing party’s assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures.

State: An organized political community having supreme authority over the people in a given territory.

Youth restiveness: a sustained protestation embarked upon to enforce desired outcome from a constituted authority by an organized body of youths.” It is marked by violence and disruption of lawful activities.

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