Food security is a concept that has evolved during the 1990s far beyond a traditional focus on the supply of food at the national level. This concept has been given general definitions in time past but in recent times, there has been a divergence of ideas on what food security really means. food security is defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. The committee on world food security defined it as physical and economic access to adequate food by all household members without undue risk of losing the access. However, the definition adopted by the countries attending the world food summit of 1996, and reconfirmed in 2002, accepts the USAID’S concept which has three key elements viz; food availability, food access and food utilization. However, a fourth concept is increasingly becoming accepted namely, “the risks that can disrupt anyone of the first three factors” There are therefore four major elements of food security. They are food availability, food access, food utilization and not loosing such access. Availability, access and utilization are hierarchical in nature. Food availability is necessary but not sufficient for food accessibility and access is necessary but not sufficient for utilization. In a larger sense, two broad groups of factors determine food security. These are supply side factors and demand side factors. The supply-side factors are those that determine food supply or food availability. In other words, they are determinants of physical access to food at national, household and intra-household levels. The demand side factors on the other hand are factors that determine the degree of access of countries, households and individuals to available food. They are, in other words, determinants of economic access to food or determinants of entitlement to available food.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Food insecurity or lack of access to nutritionally adequate diet in a household or country can take various forms. For example, chronic food insecurity exists when food supplies are persistently insufficient to supply adequate nutrient for all individuals. Transitory food insecurity occurs when there is a temporary decline in access to adequate food because of instability in food production, food price increases or income shortfalls.
We may distinguish between national food security and household food security. This distinction is necessary because an aggregate supply of food, from domestic sources or import or both, are prerequisite but certainly not a sufficient condition for a food secure situation in a country. In other words, adequate availability of food in Nigeria on a per capita basis does not necessarily translate to sufficient and adequate food for every citizen. Food security at household level is a subset of the national level and it requires that all individuals and households have access to sufficient food either by producing it themselves or by generatingsufficient income to demand for it. The research intends to profer an analysis of food security and poverty status among households in Surulere, Kebbi.
1.2 Statement Of the Problem
Food security, a means of poverty alleviation in Nigeria is sustained through local initiation as well as international assistance. There are however, several obstacles to the effective implementation of the strategies. Some of the obstacles hinges from the fact that many of the strategy were either not well designed, formulated or implementation in a co-ordinate manner, most of the poverty reduction strategies have relied solely on government subvention for their operation resulting in financial problem during the period of decline in government revenue, discontinuity and other bureaucratic decent.
The problem facing the research is an analysis of food security and poverty status among household in Surulere, Kebbi.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective is to determine food security, as it relates with the poverty status of the role of food security in poverty alleviation in Kebbi state. The specific objectives are however to:
- Identify the impact of farmers‟ awareness of food security strategies on the poverty status of the rural people in Kebbi State.
- Identify the role of food security effort in poverty alleviation among farmers in Kebbi State.
- Identify the constraints of food security role in poverty alleviation among farmers in Kebbi State,
- Identify the role of food security strategies in poverty alleviation among farmers in Kebbi State.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the extent of farmers‟ awareness of the food security strategy?
- What are the practical efforts of food security strategy in poverty alleviation among the rural people in Kebbi state?
- What are the constraints of food security in poverty alleviation among farmers in Kebbi State?